Welcome to Dr. Joseph F. Chiang's Homepage

Curriculum Vitae 
Professor of Chemistry/Biochemistry
State University of New York College at Oneonta
Oneonta, NY 13820

Phone:  607-436-3181 (Desk)
607-436-3193 (Office)
607-436-3230 (Lab)
Fax: 607-436-2654
E-mail: chiangjf@oneonta.edu


BS in Chemistry, Tunghai University, 1956-1960
MS in Chemistry, Cornell University, 1962-1964
Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry, Cornell University, 1965-1967


1975-1976 Research Fellow, Harvard University
1978, 1979 and 1981 summer National Academy of Science Exchange Scholar at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
1980, 1986 summer Visiting professor at the James Franck Institute of The University of Chicago 
1983 Spring
1985 summer
Faculty Research fellow, Argonne National Lab.
1987 Summer 
1991 Spring
Invited Lecturers of Peking and Tsinghua Universities
1991 Spring     Visiting Scientist, DMSE- MIT
1988, 1990, 1992
1993 Summer 
Distinguished Visiting Professor, Shanghai University
1992 - present     Distinguished Alumni Lectureship, Tunghai University
1999 Winter   Invited Lecturers at Peking and Tsinghua Universities
2000 Winter Chairman, Chemistry Department, SUNY at Oneonta
2005 spring Visiting professor at Tsinghua University
2008 Summer Visiting professor at Tsinghua University
2010  Summer Visiting professor at Tsinghua, Beijing University of Chemical Technology
2010 Summer Visiting professor at Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai University
2010-present Distinguished visiting professor at BUCT
2010-present Distinguished visiting professor at the Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai University 

Member of Honor & Professional Societies:

  • American Physical Society
  • American Chemical Society
  • Materials Research Society,
  • Chinese American Chemical Society
  • Distinguished Alumni Lectureship of Tunghai University.
  • Consultant for the Department of Chemical and Materials Science and Engineering, Tunghai University

Summary of Research:

  1. Gas Phase Electron diffraction, X-ray Crystallography
  2. Laser Spectroscopy Studies of Molecular Structures
  3. Corrosion Studies of Metal Matrix Composite/alloy at Low And High Temperature
  4. Studies of Ceramic Glass from Fly Ash
  5. Waste Utilization and Treatment
  6. Carbon Dioxide Laser Studies of Gas Phase Kinetics
  7. Nanotherapeutic device and drug delivery studies
  8. Photovoltaic cell studies
  9. Creation of website for “energy and energy sustainability”: http://www.oneonta.edu/development/energy/
Courses Taught:  
Graduate: Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics
Undergraduate: General Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Advanced Physical Chemistry, Heat Transfer, Material/Energy Balances, Introduction to Microprocessors


  • Joseph F. Chiang and S.H. Bauer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 88, 420 (1966).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, C.F. Wilcox, Jr., and S.H. Bauer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 90, 3149 (1968).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, C.F. Wilcox, Jr., and S.H. Bauer, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 13, 832 (1968).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and S. H. Bauer, Trans. Faraday Soc., 64, 224 (1968).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, C.F. Wilcox, Jr., and S. H. Bauer, Tetrahedron, 25, 369 (1969).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and S.H. Bauer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 91, 1898 (1969).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and S.H. Bauer, Studies of Conjugated Hydrocarbon I: The Structure of Dimethylfulvene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 92, 261 (1970).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and S.H. Bauer, The Structure of Bicyclo[1,1,1]pentane, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 92, 1614 (1970).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and D.R. Whitman, LCAO-MO-SCF Calculation of B2O3, Theoret. Chim. Acta, 17, 155 (1970).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, The Molecular Structure of Cyclopropene, J. Chin. Chem. Soc., 17, 65 (1970).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and W.A. Bernett, The Molecular Structure of Perfluorocyclopropane as Determined by Electron Diffractions, Tetrahedron, 27, 975 (1971).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, The Molecular Structure of Bicyclo[2,1,1]hexane, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 93, 5044 (1971).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and D.R. Whitman, The Electronic Structures of Bicyclo[1,1,1]pentene and Bicyclo[1,1,0]butane, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 94, 1126 (1972).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, D.L. Zebelman, and S.H. Bauer, Structure of Strained Polycyclics: Bond Distances and Angles in Tricyclo[3,3,0,02,6]oct-3-ene and in Bicyclo[2,1,1]hexene-2. Tetrahedron, 28, 2727 (1972).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, Martin T. Kratus, A.L. Andreassen, and S.H. Bauer, Structure of Bicyclo[2,1,1]pentene Determined by Electron Diffraction, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Transaction II, 68, 1274 (1972).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and Martin T. Kratus, Acta Cryst., A28, S306, (1972).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, The Molecular Structure of ZnCl4 and HfCl4, Tunghai University Bulletin, April 1973.
  • Joseph F. Chiang and C.F. Wilcox, Jr., Studies of Conjugated Ring Hydrocarbons II: The Structure of Spiro[2,4]-hepta4,6-diene, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 2885 (1973).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, The Molecular Structure of Pyridine-N-Oxide, J. of Chem. Phys., 61, 1280 (1974).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and Raymond L. Chiang, The Average Structure of 2.3-Diazabicyclo[2.2,1]hepta-2-ene and 2,3-Diazabicyclo[2.2,2]oct-2-ene, J. Mol Structure, 26, 175 (1978).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, R. Chiang, K.C. Lu, Chung-Mei Sung and M.D. Harmony, The Molecular Structure of Norbornene as Determined by Electron Diffraction and Microwave Spectroscopy, J. Mol. Struct., 41, 67 (1977).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and Martin T. Kratus, The Structure of Formamide as Determined by Electron Diffraction, Taiwan Science, 31, 1 (1977).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and K.C. Lu, The Molecular Structure of Tetra-fluoro-1.3-dithietane as Determined by Electron Diffraction, J. Phys. Chem., 81, 1682 (1977).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and K.C.Lu, Molecular Structure of 1,2,4-triazole, J. Mol. Struct., 41, 223 (1977).
  • Joseph F. Chiang and K.C. Lu, A Revised Structure of Bicyclo-[2.1,1]Hexene-2, Tetrahedron, 34, 867 (1978).
  • K.C.Lu, Raymond Chiang and Joseph F. Chiang,The Molecular Structures of Monosubstituted Cl-cyclohexenes by Gas Phase Electron Diffraction, J. Mol. Struct., 64, 229 (1980).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, Jung-Mei Song, S.H. Bauer and Stephen Ocken, The Molecular Structure of p-cyanophenol, to be submitted to J. Phys. Chem.
  • Joseph F. Chiang and J.M. Song, Structures of 4-methyl-, 4-chloro-and 4-nitro-pyridine-N-oxides, J. Mol. Struct., 96, 151 (1982).
  • J.F. Chiang, Molecular Structure of 3-Bromothietane-1,1-Dioxide, Acta Cryst., C39, 737 (1983).
  • A. Brossi, P.N. Sharma, K. Takahasi, J.F. Chiang, I.L. Karle and G. Seibert, Tetramethoprim and Pentamethoprim: Synthesis, Antibacterial Properties and X-ray Structure, Helvetica Chimica Acta. 60, 795 7 (1983).
  • I.L. Karle, J.L. Flippen-Anderson, J.F. Chiang and A.L. Lowrey, The Conformation of Five, Tetra-and Pentamethoxylated phenyl Derivatives: Weberine Analogs and Polymethoprims, Acta Cryst., B40, 500-506 (1984).
  • J.F. Chiang and R.L. Chiang, The Structure of Pyrrole and Imidazole, to be submitted to J. Mol. Struct.
  • J. Burnvoll, J.F. Chiang and I. Hargittai, Acta Cryst., C42, 94- (1986).
  • Joseph F. Chiang,, Anodic Oxidation of Metallic Super-conducting Precursor in The Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Superconductivity and Applications, November, 1989, Plenum Publishing Co. (New York).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, Superconductors in Collected Essays (1988-1989) of the Oneonta Faculty Convivium, 1989 (Oneonta, New York).
  • M.A. Buonnano, R.M. Latanision, L.H. Hihara and J.F. Chiang, Corrosion of Graphite Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites, Environmental Effects on Advanced Materials, Edited by R.H. Jones and R.E. Ricker, Pp. 267-282(1991).
  • Joseph F. Chiang, You-Wu Xu and P.C. Chen, A New Ceramic Glass: Conversion of Fly Ash to a High Density and Anti-Corrosive Ceramic. 211th National ACS Meeting, March 24, 1996. Paper # 631, Inorganic Chemistry Division.
  • Joseph F. Chiang, You-Wu Xu and P. C. Chen, Process for Producing Ceramic Glass Composition: US Patent #: 5,369,062, November 29, 1994.
  • Joseph F. Chiang, You-Wu Xu and P. C. Chen, Ceramic Glass Composition: US Patent #: 5,508,236, April 15, 1996.
  • Joseph F. Chiang, Ceramic Glass from Fly Ash, International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technology, Paper #I3-03, July 2, 2001, Singapore.
  • Joseph F. Chiang, Vitrification of Phosphogypsum, International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technology, Paper #I8-04, July 3, 2001, Singapore
  • Joseph Chiang, “Micro- and Nano-Therapeutics”, In NANO2005, Beijing, China, June 10-12, 2005. Abstract #4O-27-891,
  • Joseph Chiang, English: A Globalized Language in Science and Technology” to be published in October 2008.
  • Chapter of “Biological Requirements for Nano-therapeutic Applications” In “Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems: Recent Trends and Emerging Technologies” edited by Yashwant Pathak,” HealthCare, August, 2007.
  • Corey Lemley and Joseph Chiang, “Solar Cell  From Unconventional Materials”, Student Research Show at State University of New York, Oneonta, March12, 2008.
  • Joseph Chiang, “Ceramic Glass from Flying Ash”, presented at the 23rd International Conference on Solid Waste Treatment and Technology, March 30 to April 2, 2008, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Shouhong Xue, Chanbao Cao, Mei Li, Ximin Xu and Joseph Chiang,” Direct Current Electro-Deposition of Ternary Fe48Co36Ni16 Alloy Nanorod”, submitted to Materials Research Society Meeting, December 2-5, 2008, Boston, MA.
  • Joseph Chiang, edited, “Current Research and Development in Solar Cells” to be published by Tsinghua University Press and Springer, 2012. 
  • Dengsong Zhang, Tingting Yan, Liyi Shi, Hongrui Li, Joseph F. Chiang, “Template-free synthesis, characterization, growth mechanism and photoluminescence property of EU(OH)3 and Eu2O3  nanospindles”. Presented at ACS 239th ACS National Meeting in San Francisco, CA, March 21-25, 2010.
  • Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1148 © 2009 Materials Research Society, 


  • Template-free synthesis, characterizations, growth mechanisms and   

Photoluminescence of Eu(OH)3 and Eu2O3 nanospindles”, J. Alloys and Compounds, 506(2010) 446-455.

  • O2  Manipulated Synthesis of CdS Nanorods Inspired by Nanoseparation. MRS Spring Meeting, April 27, 2011, San Francisco, CA, Paper # EE6.37 
  • Nanoseparation –Inspired Manipulation of the Synthesis of CdS Nanorods, Nano Res.2011,4:226-232.
  1. Investigation of Chemical Reactions by Carbon Dioxide Laser
    The carbon dioxide laser Model 570 by Apollo Lasers, Inc. in Chatsworth, CA. with an output power of 50 watts will be used for the research activity. The power supply is of current-regulated type to insure uniform plasma tube excitation current. The power supply may be operated in the continuous wave(CW), chopped or pulsed modes. The pulse width and repetition rate are adjustable which suits our research purpose.

    CO2 laser action takes place in free molecule. The energy levels involved in laser action are rotation-vibration levels and the emission occurs at much longer wavelength well into the infra-red region. The lasing medium consists of CO2, N2 and He gases in various proportions. For our instrument, a mixture of 6% CO2, 18% N2, and 76% He will be needed in order to have an optimum output for our research project. Unimolecular laser induced reactions: Laser-induced photo-isomerization can be applied to isomerization process to modify relative proportions of different isomers in a mixture. In general, organic syntheses produce more than one isomer. The equilibrium constant is related to temperature. If the temperature required for reaction is very high, decomposition may occur. In order to produce one isomer in a high proportion, selection of an appropriate wavelength for such isomer to absorb is an important process. This will result in high yield of such isomer. This type of process cannot be carried out with conventional photochemical process. For example, in 1,2- dichloroethane, the cis isomer is more stable than the trans-isomer by a calculated value of approximately 2 KJ/mol. Pulsed irradiation of a mixture containing an excess of trans-compound at a frequency of 980.9 cm-1 results in conversion a mixture in which the cis-isomer predominates. Another example is the 949.5 cm-1 irradiation of hexafluorocyclobutane to form a high yield of hexafluoro-1,3-dibutene which is less stable thermodynamically. These two reactions will be studied by the newly acquisition of the Apollo CO2 laser.

  2. The production of Ceramic Powder:
    We have been working on ceramic glass from fly ash for the past twelve years. Two US patents have been awarded for the process and composition of ceramic glass from fly ash. The process involved a thermal treatment with high temperature furnace for the conversion of fly ash to ceramic glass. For raw material other than fly ash, the particle size is the most important factor determining the quality of the end product, the ceramics. Such factor cannot be handled with a furnace or thermal treatment. Thus by using the radiation from carbon dioxide laser, one can produce a vibrationally enhanced bimolecular reaction. An example is the syntheses of Si3N4 from silane(SiH4) and ammonia(NH3). Both silane and ammonia have absorption at 10.6 _m wavelength region, and can undergo vibrational excitation. The yield is high and the reaction time is short. It resulted in a high purity Si3N4 with a narrow distribution of particle size, less than a micron.

    There are numerous applications of carbon dioxide laser in chemistry. The above-mention two processes are just few of these cases.

    Once our CO2 laser is in operation, it can be used for many chemical and physical applications. If time permits, many new and original chemical reactions can be chosen for study. The results will be reported at the meetings of American Chemical Society and American Physical Society. External funding will be seeking to continue my research. We do have plan to apply for grants from National Science Foundation, ACS Petroleum Fund, DOE, and other sources

  3. Utilization and Disposal of Fly Ash from Coal-fired Power Plants.
    The purpose of this research is to address to the minimization and utilization of wastes from coal-fired power plants. The incombustibles materials in coal-firing electric power plant can be classified as fly ash, bottom ash (if ash particles have never completely melted), or boiler slag (if ash particles have melted), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) . EPA has set restriction to remove sulfur from FGD, but no restrictions are imposed on the disposition of the first three types of wastes due to the non-hazardous nature. The Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG), formed by the Edison Electric Institute, the American Public Power Association, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association has submitted a Comprehensive Report to EPA for the disposal and utilization of wastes from combustion of coal by electric utility power plant. USWAG also recommended Congress to encourage and endorse the utilization of ash. It was estimated that electric utility will generate 120 million tons of ash in 2000. Fly ash is about 20-50% of all ash generated. The percentage generated depends on the boiler process. The bottom ash with a higher density has been studied and utilized in airport runway and highway constructions. The light and low density fly-ash was usually treated by the ordinary method to store in some empty space along hillside. Disposal and minimization of the storage space for fly-ash have caused many environmental concerns it is usually bulky due to the size of the ash and its disposal is also very expensive. This project is aimed at the conversion of the low density waste to a much higher density solid at a very high temperature by heat treatment4. Heating process will play a very important role in the conversion. A high temperature furnace with temperatures up to 1600°C along with a programmable heating control system will be needed 5. This laboratory equipment is available at the College at Oneonta, State University of New York. Other instruments such a diamond wheel saw, and grinder/polisher are available for the research project. Some infrequently used instruments will not be purchased. The project director has arrangement for the use of such instruments with institutions such as RPI, MIT, Princeton and SUNY-Buffalo, etc.

    Fly ash contains many oxides, such as SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Fe2O3/FeO. The mixture will be heated to 1500°C or higher for a given period at previously determined heating rate. Sintering processes also needed with the programmable heat control software of the high temperature furnace. Removal of some oxides or addition of other oxides will be carried out in order to obtain a useful product. Our main purpose is to produce a high density new product which is durable, easy to mold, oxidation resistant, thermal shock resistant, high impact resistant, and high compressive strength. The project director has been working in this field for many years. He has received US patents for a ceramic glass product (U. S. Patent No. 5,369,062, and US Patent No. 5,508236).

    In this project, our major task is to search for a new thermal process. Collection of fly ash from New York State Electric & Gas Company and other power plants will be a simple process.

    Once the product is formed, we will study the following properties:

    Physical and Mechanical Properties:
    a) Density measurement,
    b) Compressive strength test,
    c) Hardness measurement,
    d) Impact Resistance test,
    e) Thermal Shock Resistance measurement,
    f) Thermal Expansion Coefficient measurement.

    Chemical Properties:
    a) Acid Resistance test,
    b) Alkaline Resistance test.

  4. Another part of my research activity is to study the utilization of waste from phosphoric acid fertilizer manufacture, the phospogypsum. The purpose is to produce a new product which will be described later, the vitrified roof tile and sidewalk brick/block. Conducting nickel wire or other metal will be incorporated in this type of new products. By passing electric current to the tile or brick/block, ice or snow can be melted. This can serve as a very useful structural material in the northeast.

    Phosphogypsum is referred as the by-product of wet acid production of phosphoric acid from phosphate rock deposits, the hydrofluoric acid and FGD(flue gas desulfurization). For a production of one ton of phosphoric acid, there are 4-5 tons of phosphogypsum produced. Approximately 150 million metric tons phosphogypsum are produced worldwide annually. 15% of the annual production has been reprocessed and used for new products. 60% has been stockpiled and 25% was dumped. In United States, a relatively small amount of phosphogypsum has been utilized and most are stockpiled. About 70% of the utilized phosphogypsum is for manufacture of gypsum board and partition panels, 20% as additive to cement, 7% for agricultural application. The rest are used for recovery of sulfur and other elements.The composition of phosphgypsum based on the manufacture processes of phosphoric acid are listed below:









Cryst. H20




























  1. DH: Di-hydrate process,
    HH: Hemi-hydrate process,
    HDH: Hemi-di-hydrate process.

    For brick and block, a static compacting process is used. For brick with a dimension of 2x3 3/4x8", a static compaction of 12,000 psi will applied. Ahmadi reported the following tests on the brick: compaction strength, modulus of rupture, density, water absorption, and abrasion resistance. The properties are determined mainly by the process for brick manufacture. There are three different curing conditions for the brick:

    1. Two days oven dried and five days air dried; two days oven dried and five days air dried followed by two days submerged in water (soaked). The compressive strength varies from 2000 psi to 5000 psi.
    2. If the brick is soaked in water for seven days, the compressive strength will be 3000 psi (2% cement content), it increases to 4250 psi with 8% cement content.
    3. Brick with 60% DH phosphogypsum, 2-8% Portland cement and sand, soaked in water for 28 days of curing in a plastic membrane has a compressive strength of 4000 psi(with 2% cement content) and 5500 psi(with 8% cement content). The modulus of rupture is in the range from 100 psi to 1100 psi. Water absorption is in the range of 6.005% to 7.440%. Densities of brick varies from 1.87 g/mL to 2.07 g/mL(117 lb/ft3 to 129 lb/ft3) For 60% phospogypsum and 2-10% cement content brick, the abrasive depth of abrasion falls into the range of 5 to 50 mils. The higher the cement content, the higher the abrasive resistance.

      Presently, one of my research programs on ceramic glass from coal-ash are supported by New York State Electric & Gas Company (NYSER&G) and the Graduate Research Initiative Program. Several research grant proposals have been submitted to the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation to seek fund for research in ceramic glass study.

  2. Synthesis of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Solar Cells

            General Descriptions of the Project and Background:

Energy for the present and future is a major concern with all of us. Activities of Human Beings are solely depending on energy. No process can be carried out without any energy   supply. The scale of energy use is closely associated with the quality of life of its members. US with 5% of world population, but consumes 25% of the world energy production1. Thus energy is the major economic factor for us. All types of energy supply have limit, except renewable energy. The reserves of fossil energy including oil, coal, and natural gases are limited. According to the data from Doe’s Energy Information Administration, global oil reserve could last for 300 to 400 years, and coal reserve may last for 200 years2. Nuclear energy may last longer, but its safety poses some concern. Biomass fuel has its environmental effects. The only safe and clean source of energy is renewable energy. Such renewable energy is primary derived from sun light. We try to avoid the term “solar” in order to mislead public’s concept of “bright sun light”. Thus we use “photovoltaic cells (PV)” instead of solar cells. Photovoltaic cells even in an overcast day can produce energy. This means as long as we are in day light time, we can utilize “solar energy”. The only solar energy which is depending on the brightness of sun light is the so-called “concentrating photovoltaic” solar cells. Our research is aiming at the production of energy from “daylight” by using PV cells. Use of solar panels to collect sun light to produce heat or electricity is our first generation of solar energy. The second generation of solar energy is the PV cells and the third generation of solar energy is the application of dye sensitized PV cells. Most of PV cells use transparent conducting oxides (TCOs)3. Such TCOs use indium tin oxides (ITO). Due to the scarcity and the expensive metal indium, the cost of transparent conducting oxides will be very expensive. Replacement of indium with other oxides for the manufacturing of TCOs deems necessary.  We are in the process to search for other oxides to replace indium oxides. There are many   metal oxides, but only a few can be used for the manufacturing of TCOs. Zinc oxide could be one of the candidates4. Hafnium and zirconium oxides could also be used. Our research at the present time is to search for nanocrystalline zinc oxide doped with other metal oxides to produce less expensive TCOs. The physical properties, such as electric conductivity, magnetic, optical, and mechanical characteristics of nanosized metal oxide particles are known to be substantially different from those of bulk materials4. The optical and electrical performance of TCOs is related to the band structure of the metal. Oxides with fundamental band gap of 3 eV or more are insulators at room temperature in un-doped state. To become conducting, the oxides must be doped to degeneracy by increasing the free carrier density enough to move the Fermi level into the conducting band. Aluminum could be used for doping metal.

Specific Goals of the Project, Methods, and Timeline:
Synthesis of nanosized zinc oxide(ZnO) and Al-doped ZnO:

  1. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide:

    Start with ZnSO4∙7H2O by dissolving such hydrate in aqueous solution. Then continue calcinations at a higher than room temperature for a tried period of time. It could take several hours to a couple of days. For calcinations, we propose several stages of heating:

    Step 1: Heat the mixture from room temperature to 300oC for 3-4 hour,
    Step 2: Sinter at such temperature for 2-3 hours.
    Step 3: Heat again from 300oC to 600oC at a rate of heat of 50oC/hour, or at a higher rate.
    Step 4: Sinter again at 600oC for 2-3 hours.
    Step 5: Cool the furnace to room temperature.
    Step 6: Distilled water is added to the powder for calcinations.
    Step 7: The wet powder is milled and dried.

    We have the equipment for carrying out the thermal process for our research. A CM Furnace is located at B19 in Physical Sciences Building. An Autoclave is also available for us to use. The furnace is equipped with automatic temperature control system.

  2. Al2O2 Doping ZnO:
    Aluminum oxide octahydrate[Al2(SO4)3 ∙8H2O] will be added to  ZnSO4∙7H2O (aq). The calcinations procedure is the same as for the un-doped ZnO powder.

    1. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide doped with Aluminum for nanostructure Thin Film:
      Al- doped ZnO powder can also be synthesized from ZnCl2 and AlCl3 by hydrothermal method. A small non-coated area on the thin film is created for electric contact. The detail process is the conventional method. The aqueous solution of the mixture is heated to 100oC, washed, and dried. The dried precipitation is annealed at a higher temperature about 300oC to produce ZnO doped with Al(ZnO:Al=1:1). Hafnium and zirconium oxides will also be tried in order to find the best TCOs for photovoltaic solar cells application.
    2. Characterization:
      The morphology of the products can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The powder will be analyzed by X-ray diffractometer. The optical transmittance of the thin film can be measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The resistivity will be studied by a four-probed method (GP low-resistivity meter, such as MCP-T600, Mitsubishi Co.)

Role of the Student and Faculty Sponsor:
          The student researcher is responsible for carrying out the research in detail. Faculty sponsor serves as a supervisor and consultant in the process of research. Help will be provided as needs arise.   Student’s researches will be completed at the end of next semester.  Research for the study of TCOs will continue under the supervision of faculty member. Students in chemistry and physics could join professor at a later time.


  • J. Coleridge, and K. Khan, Sustainable Energy: The Engine of Sustainable Development in Business & Economics (2005)
  • International Energy Outlook, International Energy Administration, US Department of Energy (2006).
  • D. Ginley and C. Bright, Transparent Conducting Oxides, MRS Bulletin, 25(8), 15-18(2000)
  • P. P. Edwards, A. Porch, M. O. Jones, D. V. Morgan, and R. M. Perks, Basic Materials of Transparent Conducting Oxides, Dalton Trans. 2995-3002(2004).