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First Romanesque in France



Plan of 2nd Church at Cluny, dedicated 981, vaulted after 1000 (apse in echelon)

Notable Abbots of Cluny: Berno (910-26): Founder; Odilo (994-1049): Built Cluny II; Hugh of Semur (1049-1109); Peter the Venerable (1122-56)



Saint Martin at Chapaize, c. 1050.


East end of St. Martin at Chapaize, apse in echelon


Detail of Exterior of St. Martin at Chapaize.


Nave of St. Martin at Chapaize, barrel vault


Aerial view of the St Philibert at Tournus


West facade (westwork) of St Philibert at Tournus, c. 990-1019. Note the articulation of the facade with arched corbel tables and pilaster strips.


St Philibert at Tournus, Exterior of apse with ambulatory with radiating chapels, 950-1019.


St Philibert at Tournus, Detail of the exterior of the apse. Note contrast in masonry with hammer dressed stonework below and ashlar masonry above in the apse.


Interior of St Philibert at Tournus, nave vaulted with transverse barrel vaults, 950-c 1120.


View from side aisle with groin vaults to the nave of St Philibert at Tournus, vaulted c. 950-1120.


Detail of the transverse barrel vault of St. Philibert at Tournus.


c. 200: erection of a tomb on the site of the tomb of St.

c. 400: the possible construction of an oratory around the tomb

c. 600: foundation of a small monastery around this chapel.

814-819: Monks at the island monastery of Noirmoutier dedicated to St. Philibert construct a priory church at Déas, near the Lake of Grandlieu.

by 839: Norseman raids of the monastery of Noirmoutier force the monks to abandon the island monastery and move to Déas. Taking the relics of St. Philbert with them, the monks revise the priory into the church of St-Philibert-de-Grandlieu.

858: Norse raids force monks to abandon St. Philibert-de-Grandlieu and move the community to Cunault in Anjou.

875: Charles the Bald donated the monastery of St. Valérien
to the monks of Noirmoutier (dedicated to St. Philibert) who were chased from their native province by the Norman invasions.

937: devastation by the Hungarians (Magyars) of all the
monastery buildings under the abbacy of Aimin.

945-948: the split within the community after the intervention
of the Count of Chalon in the election of Aimin's
successor. The Count wanted to impose his protégé Gui.
A group of monks refused to yield to the Count's will and
exiled themselves at Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule, taking
the relics of Saint Philibert with them. Once at Saint-
Pouçain, the monks freely elected their abbot, Hervé III.

949: a regional assembly dismissed Gui, recognised Hervé and
summoned the monks back to Tournus.

979: transfer the relics of Saint Philibert to a place of honour
on the new high altar.

1007 or 1008: a terrible fire destroyed the abbey and its church under
the abbacy of Wago. History tells that only the crypt
withstood the flames and several precious objects were
hastily thrown into it thus saving them from destruction.

1019: the consecration of the Church, probably during the
restoration of the Church under Bernier's abbacy.

1028: abbacy of Saint Ardain and the completion of the
restoration work.

1120: after some important work had been done on the whole
east part of the Church. Pope Calixtus II consecrated it

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