Dr. Terry L. Helser, Professor of Chemistry
227 Physical Sciences Building, Oneonta, NY 13820-4015
Phone: (607)436-3518 or Email to:

Study Guide - Biochemistry, The Molecular Basis of Life, 4th Ed., 2009, T. & J.R. McKee (Oxford Univ. Press)

Chapter 18: Genetic Information

You can go back to the Fall, Spring or Summer schedules, to information on the lab , to the extra credit puzzles , or leave me a message . Or skip to chapter 19 or the transcription section. 

What is the Central Dogma of genetic information flow in cells?

What is semiconservative replication? How did Meselson and Stahl prove that DNAs replicate this way? What technique did they pioneer for this?

What steps are required to replicate DNA? What enzymes are required for each step?

Where is the origin of replication?

In what direction(s) do DNA polymerases (and RNA polymerases for that matter) synthesize nucleic acids?
In what direction(s) are DNA strands synthesized at a replication fork?
How does a 5' -> 3' polymerase make DNA in both the 5' -> 3' and 3' -> 5' directions? What are Okazaki fragments?

How many DNA polymerases have been found in E. coli? What are the major functions of each? Note particularly p. 493.

In what two ways is the fidelity of replication ensured?

What is a mutation? Give examples. (See p. 462-464, chapter 16 as well)

Why does DNA have Thymine (5-methyl uracil) rather than the U in RNA?

How does the structure of RNA differ from DNA? Why is it different in each case?

How do you explain the fact that single-stranded RNAs are 70-90% base paired?

What steps and enzymes are required for transcription? What is the promoter? What does sigma factor do? ...rho factor?

What RNAs are produced by transcription? What are their functions? Which contains the sequence of codons? Which contains the anticodons ?

Which DNA strand is the template strand? What is the other strand called? Which corresponds to the sense strand?

Which has a base sequence complementary to the RNA produced? Which is identical (substituting U for T)?

Note: Biochemical Connections, pp. 251, 258.

End of chapter review questions: 1.-7., 10.-12., 15.-17., 20.-36., 44., 47.

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