Dr. Terry L. Helser, Professor of Chemistry
227 Physical Sciences Building, Oneonta, NY 13820-4015
Phone: (607)436-3518 or Email to:

Study Guide - Biochemistry, The Molecular Basis of Life, 4th Ed., 2009, T. & J.R. McKee (Oxford Univ. Press)

Chapter 4:Energy

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A spontaneous reaction is one that is possible. Wax will burn. What is released during this reaction? How did you get it started? What did you have to add?

Define the terms free energy, exergonic and endergonic . How are they related?

What is the free energy, delta G, at equilibrium?

What is the activation energy? What do enzymes do to overcome it?

Cofactors (Coenzymes) What are NADH, NADPH, FADH2 and ATP? What form(s) of energy do they carry?

List these cofactors in descending order of the amount of usable energy (that is ATP -> ADP + Pi equivalents) they can generate for the cell.

Diagram the pathways involved in metabolizing glucose completely to CO 2, H2O and ATP, including the substrate(s) and products of each, in the order they occur.

Where does ATP rank in energy relative to other "high energy" compounds found in cells (see McKee2 Table 4.1, p. 103)? Why would this position be important for the major energy shuttle between catabolism and anabolism?

True or False: Animals cannot fix CO2 and synthesize glucose, only photosynthetic organisms can. Defend your answer.

End of the chapter Review Questions: 1. 4.-7. 12. 14.-16. 17-33. 39.-50.

Chapter 7: Carbohydrates

What structural formula is implied by the term "carbohydrate"? Is this accurate?

Name some common mono-, di- and polysaccharides. What do they have in common? How do they differ?

A more complete definition: Sugars (carbohydrates) are polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses), or release them on hydrolysis.

Which of the common sugars are aldoses? ...ketoses?

How does configuration differ from conformation? Which is a D- or L-sugar? Which isomer is more common?

What is meant by the alpha or ß-anomer terminology for cyclic sugars? ...furanose and pyranose? Which is glucose in water? ...fructose? ...ribose? ...2-deoxyribose?

What is mutarotation of a sugar like glucose in water?

What monosaccharides condense to form sucrose? ...lactose? ...maltose?...cellulose? ...starch (amylose and amylopectin)? ...Chitin? ...glycogen? ...a glycocalyx?

What is the function of each? Compare and contrast plant and animal polysaccharides.

What is lactose intolerance? ... galactosemia? Is there a treatment?

End of chapter questions: 1. 3., 6.-8., 11., 12., 15., 17. 19. 21. 24.-26. 30. 35. 41. 46. 47.

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